سرگذشت مداد به انگلیسی

سرگذشت مداد به انگلیسی

 Pencils – a history

oldest pencil

  The origin of today’s pencil goes back to 1565, when a grey-black glistening substance was found in Borrowdale, in the Cumberland hills of England. It was said to be a ‘lead’ coloured material, greasy to touch an quick to stain the fingers. This substance became known as black-lead, and was found to be more convenient for a writing an drawing than pen and ink, as it’s marks could be rubbed out easily.
  In the late 18th century, Swedish chemist Karl Wilhelm Scheele identified the substance as a crystallised form of carbon, like diamond, however structurally very different. He named it Graphite, from the Greek word for writing, ‘Graphein’.
In 1761 cabinetmaker Kaspar Faber settled in Stein, near Nurenburg, in Germany to make his first simple pencils. Graphite was cut into narrow sticks and glued between two pieces of wood which were cut and planed smooth.
  In 1794 the Graphite-Clay process was invented. Powdered graphite was mixed with clay, shaped into thin rods (or leads) then fired in a kiln at high temperature. The greater the graphite content the softer and darker the lead. The greater the clay content the harder and lighter the lead.
  In 1839, Lothar Faber, the great grandson of Kaspar Faber, began to transform the pencil industry. He mechanised production. He invented the hexagonal pencil and created standards for the pencil size and grades of hardness still in use today. His products were marked A.W. Faber, the first ever brand-name writing products and amongst the earliest branded articles in the world.
source: faber-castell.ie
 

 

pencil    مداد
 
origin    سر چشمه
 
glisten    درخشیدن
 
substance    ماده
 
greasy    روغنی
 
stain    لکه دار کردن
 
convenient    راحت
 
ink    جوهر
 
identify    شناختن
 
diamond    الماس
 
structurally    از لحاظ ساختاری
 
glue    چسباندن
 
wood    چوب
 
invent    اختراع کردن
 
Powdered    پودر شده
 
clay    خاک رس
 
softer    نرم تر
 
harder    سخت تر
 
mechanised    مکانیزه شده
 
production    تولید
 
hexagonal    شش وجهی
 
سرگذشت مداد به انگلیسی
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