تاریخچه ی شطرنج

تاریخچه ی شطرنج (انگلیسی)

History of Chess

chess

The precursors of chess originated in India during the Gupta Empire, where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturaṅga, which translates as “four divisions (of the military)”: infantry, cavalry, elephantry, and chariotry , represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively.

Chess was introduced to Persia from India and became a part of the princely or courtly education of Persian nobility. In Sassanid Persia around 600 the name became chatrang, which subsequently evolved to shatranj, and the rules were developed further. Players started calling “Shāh!” (Persian for “King!”) when attacking the opponent‘s king, and “Shāh Māt!” (Persian for “the king is helpless”) when the king was attacked and could not escape from attack. These exclamations persisted in chess as it traveled to other lands.

The game was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia (633–44), where it was then named shatranj, with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names. In Spanish “shatranj” was rendered as ajedrez (“al-shatranj”), in Portuguese as xadrez, and in Greek as ζατρίκιον (zatrikion, which comes directly from the Persian chatrang),but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shāh (“king”), which was familiar as an exclamation and became the English words “check” and “chess”. Murray theorized that Muslim traders came to European seaports with ornamental chess kings as curios before they brought the game of chess.

The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe. Introduced into the Iberian Peninsula by the Moors in the 10th century, it was described in a famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj, backgammon, and dice named the Libro de los juegos. Another theory contends that chess arose from the game xiangqi (Chinese chess) or one of its predecessors, although this has been contested.

Ref: chess.com

 

chess   شطرنج

translate   ترجمه کردن

military   ارتش

infantry   پیاده نظام

cavalry   سواره نظام

knight   شوالیه

bishop   اسقف

nobility   اشراف

subsequently   متعاقبا

rules   قوانین

develop   توسعه دادن

attack   حمله کردن

opponent  حریف

escape   فرار کردن

persist   باقی ماندن

Islamic conquest   فتح اسلامی

render   ارائه دادن

replace   جایگزین کردن

trader   تاجر

seaport   بندر

spread   گسترش دادن

manuscript   نسخه خطی

dice   تاس

predecessors   اجداد

contest   مباحثه وجدل کردن

 

تاریخچه ی شطرنج (انگلیسی)
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